The oxidation of the lipid fraction of meat
The oxidation of the lipid fraction of meat is an extremely complex process because of the high sensitivity of oxidation products to decomposition, their reactions with other components, the complex effect of catalysts and the presence of antioxidants. These changes are the main cause of limited shelf life of these foodstuffs. The storage of finished products causes emission of undesirable odour and spoils the taste of products. Fat oxidation results in the formation of free radicals, lipid peroxides, and a wide range of other products .
Presently, researchers are conducting many investigations, which confirm the fact that a diet rich in plant products helps to keep good health. According to reports in reference publications, the consumption of fruits, vegetables and herbs lowers the incidence of diseases of the metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we can observe increased interest in active compounds, including polyphenols, which can be found in rosemary. The inhibition of cholinesterase activity is of key importance in symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer\'s disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors block these enzymes, increase the content of KPT-185 in cholinergic synapses and improve neurotransmission. Therefore, researchers are continuing investigations on specific natural compounds that might be reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. It is particularly important for improvement of transmission in the cholinergic system of the central nervous system .
The aim of the study was to determine the influence of rosemary extract and substitution of 20% of animal fat with rapeseed oil on storage changes in liver pâté and on the activity of pâtés as cholinesterase inhibitors. Liver pâté was selected for research because it is a product with high oxidative instability. It contains a high amount of fat (up to approximately 60%) and non-haeme iron (approximately 30 mg/g of pâté), which is considered the most important pro-oxidant in meat products. Processing such as grinding or mixing of meat increases the oxidative instability, thereby causing interactions between free fatty acids and oxygen in the presence of catalysts such as heat and metalloproteins. The homogeneous structure of liver pâté allows partial exchange of fat with plant oil, and that is why it is possible to enrich the finished meat product with unsaturated fatty acids , , , . In addition, antioxidants, e.g. rosemary, can be used to prolong quality of products and decrease the formation of oxidative changes in fat.
Material and methods
Results and discussion
Introduction Exposure to organophosphorus (OP) esters can cause several toxic effects, including acute cholinergic clinical episodes, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) and chronic neurological effects. The immediate effects of exposure to high levels of OPs involve inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, and they are well documented. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase brings about changes in functions in central and peripheral nervous systems. However, the effects of long-term low doses exposure are controversial and not well known. (Sogorb and Vilanova, 2010). Some OPs induce OPIDN after acute exposure associated with neuropathy target esterase (NTE) inhibition, followed by the so-called “aging reaction” (Williams and Johnson, 1981; Johnson, 1982). NTE is a membrane protein and chicken is the animal model, and extensive studies have been conducted into chicken brain and peripheral nerve that have used OPs compounds. NTE have been operationally measured as the PVase activity that resistant to paraoxon and sensitive to mipafox. The test involves assaying PVase activity in 2 conditions: (B) 20/30 min preincubation with 40 μM paraoxon; (C) preincubation with 40 μM paraoxon and 50 μM mipafox, being NTE activity the difference B-C.